Nishapur became an important town in the Khorasan region. It is known as "the turquoise land" being famous for its turquoise mines that supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia, but subsequently declined in significance until a revival in its fortunes in 9th century under the Tahirid dynasty, when the glazed ceramics of Nishapur formed an important item of trade to the west. For a time Nishapur rivaled Baghdad or Cairo: Toghrül, the first ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, made Nishapur his residence in 1037 and proclaimed himself sultan there, but it declined thereafter, as Seljuk fortunes were concentrated in the west. In the year 1000CE.Nishapur was among the 10 largest cities on earth.
The region's economy is largely agricultural, based on grain and cotton, and it is also the second industrial city in Khorasan, and one of the most prosperous localities in Iran. It had a population of 205,972 people according (2006 census). The region is very prone to earthquakes, with the most recent significant ones occurring in 1986 and 1997
During the Mongol Invasion of Central Asia, Genghis Khan's son-in-law was killed at Nishapur in 1221. As a result of this, Genghis Khan's daughter ordered the death of all in the city (~1.7 million), and the skulls of men, women, and children were piled in pyramids by the Mongols. " Nishapur was a city of knowledge and innovation... in the Islamic World but the Mongol invasion change it to blood river, with Heads of men and women and children was built [in] pyramids (Sandra Maki). This invasion and earthquakes destroyed the pottery kilns.
Nishapur is the birth place and the hometown of Imam Muslim (206–261 AH/c.821-875 CE), though into the Arab tribe of Qushai. His real name is Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj ibn Muslim ibn Warat al-Qushayri al-Nisaburi, the author of the second authentic sahih collection of hadith. After many studies throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, he settled down in his hometown of Nishapur until his death.
Nishapur has been the hometown of famous people including: Imam al-Hakim - another one of Islam's greatest muhaddiths and scholarly giants, Prof. Mohammad Reza Shafiei-Kadkani - great contemporary Persian poet and writer of Persian literature, who is famous for his literary criticism, Ostad Parviz Meshkatian - famous Musician, researcher, Santur player and composer,Heydar Yaghma - an illiterate worker who began telling poems and published them, Haji Bektash Veli -Muslim mystic, humanist and philosopher, Saadat Khan or Wakil-i-Mutlaq - also called Burhan-ul-Mulk, was the founder of the Awadh dynasty in north India in 18th century, Omar Khayyám - a poet and mathematician, Farid al-Din Attar - a 12th century poet and mystic, Kamal-ol-molk - Iran's greatest contemporary painter.
Edited by Tim, 16 January 2013 - 01:22 PM.